books pdf What Was the Ice Age? (What Was?) Author Nico Medina –

What Was the Ice Age? (What Was?) Nico Medina is the author of Where Is Mount Everestand Where Is the Great Barrier Reefand other books in the Who WasseriesWhat Was the Ice Age Southwest France, SeptemberEighteen year old Marcel Ravidat is exploring the forest outside his village with three friends People say there is a secret underground passage in these woods that leads to a nearby castle The four teenagers spot a small opening in the ground Could this be the way to the castle or to buried treasure Marcel is the first to lower himself into the dark The fifty foot passage is long and narrow Marcel is terrified When he reaches the bottom, he sees that he is inside an enormous cave But it is too dark to see much else So Marcel climbs back up The next day he returns to the cave with his friends This time he has a grease gun to use as a torch Back in the cave, what the boys see amazes them All over the curving cave walls are hundreds of colorful paintings of prehistoric beasts The animals almost seem to come to life in the flickering light Sixty horses gallop along the cave walls Red deer swim across a river Shaggy haired rhinos thrust their sharp horns in the air Some of these paintings are huge One of a giant ox measures eighteen feet across A lone human figure, wearing a bird mask, appears on the wall He is being charged by a bison The animal is injured A spear is stuck in its belly Its guts are spilling out The boys cant believe their eyes They are gazing at scenes from a long lost world What theyve discovered is farinteresting than some old castle Today scientists know that these cave walls at Lascaux say law SKO were painted by humans living , years ago These artists lived during a very cold period of Earths history the Ice Age During the Ice Age, great sheets of ice covered much of Europe, Asia, and North America People took shelter in caves for warmth That is where the term caveman came from Animals like bears, lions, and hyenas also lived in caves, so house hunting was a deadly affair Peoples chances of staying alive depended on their ability to adaptto learn how to survive in a world of fearsome predators and wild weather The Ice Age was certainly a difficult and dangerous time to be alive ChapterAn Ice Covered World Less than two hundred years ago, no one knew there had been an Ice Age Then in , a young Swiss professor named Louis Agassiz say LOO ee AG uh see gave a speech to a group of scientists What he told the audience shocked them Europeand much of the world, he saidwas once completely covered in ice He said that this sheet of ice stretched from the North Pole to the Mediterranean Sea The whole European continent was frozen beneath it This age of ice was so cold, Louis said, it wiped out all life on Earth In his book Studies on Glaciers, Louis said that springs dried up, streams ceased to flow, and the rays of the sun, rising over this frozen shore were greeted only by the whistling of the northern wind across the surface of the huge ocean of ice Louis was right Mostly The ice hadnt reached as far as the Mediterranean And many creatureshumans among themdid survive the Ice Age But Louis was on the right track Howd he come up with this idea Believe it or not, it was by looking at some rocks Louis went to the Alps in the summer ofThe Alps are tall mountains in central Europe So tall, there are always glacierslarge bodies of iceon their mountaintops Louis Agassiz stayed at the home of Jean de Charpentier say ZHON duh Shar pahn tee AY Jean was a geologist, someone who studies rocks to learn about Earths past One day, Jean pointed out some boulders in the mountains Boulders are very large rocks The boulders didnt look like they had come off the mountains that surrounded them They seemed to be made of a different kind of rock Jean told Louis he knew why this was Glaciers had put them there, Jean said Long ago, when the mountain glaciers were growing, they picked up the boulders from someplace else The moving ice dragged the boulders along This made deep scratches in the mountainsides Jean showed these marks to Louis, too In time, as the ice melted away and the glaciers became smaller, the boulders stayed where the glaciers had dropped them Louis had seen boulders like these before, standing alone in fields He had never paid them much attention However, when Louis returned home from his trip to Jeans, he began to notice boulders all around him Louis was sure Jean was right These boulders were proof that glaciers had once covered the area But Louis took things one step further If glaciers were once bigger in the Alps, couldnt they have been bigger around the rest of the world, too The next year, Louis gave his famous Ice Age speech What did Jean think about all of this He was surprised Jean didnt think Louis had the proof for these new ideas For other people, it wasnt a matter of science The notion of an Ice Age went against their belief in God and the Bible The boulders werent moved by an ancient ice sheet, they said The boulders were carried by water Water from a powerful flood that had covered the earth , years before The story of this flood was told in the Bible Louis disagreed The boulders were way too heavy to be moved by water It had to be ice, he said Talk of the Ice Age spread across Europe In England, there was a great interest in geology Thousands of peoplenot just scientistsgathered in university halls to hear geologists speak about their discoveries The best part of geology was that almost anyone could contribute to the science They just had to go out in the country, write about what they saw, and collect samples Louis always had encouraged his students to study nature, not books So that was what ordinary people started doing, too And what they saw wasproof of an Ice Age Scratch marks on mountainsides Huge rocks standing in fields, as if dropped by giants Smooth sheets of rock, polished by the moving ice Rocks, pebbles, and other debris called glacial drift where glaciers had stopped growing and begun to melt They drew maps with this information Forty years after Louiss speech, a world map of Ice Age glaciers had been pieced together It showed that places like Seattle, Washington, and New York City were once under ice Though it had taken years, the world was beginning to believe Louis Agassiz Of course, simply knowing that there had been an Ice Age didnt explain what had caused the world to cool Nor was there any understanding of when the Ice Age began Or how long it lasted Nevertheless, the rush to unlock the Ice Ages secrets had begun

About the Author: Nico Medina

Is a well known author, some of his books are a fascination for readers like in the What Was the Ice Age? (What Was?) book, this is one of the most wanted Nico Medina author readers around the world.

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