[Read] ➼ The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory ➹ Carol J. Adams – Intimatenights.co.uk

The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory I don t know whether it was the style or some other nebulous reason, but I found this book difficult to read It was well worth the effort, though, because the author presents an important hypothesis about the correlation between the ways women and animals are treated and regarded in society I found this book to be unique, as some of the information and ideas it presents I ve found in no other books. The New York Timesruns an essay contest on the ethics of meat eating The judges are animal rights advocates and plant based nutrition gurus They are all men.Carol J Adams wrote The Sexual Politics of Ethics and questioned the choice of an all male panel Why wasn t a single female included Karen Davis, Pattrice Jones, Lauren Ornelas, Erica Meier, Josephine Donovan, Greta Gaard, Lori Gruen, Marla Rose, Laura Wright, Kim Socha, Breeze Harper, Jasmin Singer or Mariann Sullivan for examplThe New York Timesruns an essay contest on the ethics of meat eating The judges are animal rights advocates and plant based nutrition gurus They are all men.Carol J Adams wrote The Sexual Politics of Ethics and questioned the choice of an all male panel Why wasn t a single female included Karen Davis, Pattrice Jones, Lauren Ornelas, Erica Meier, Josephine Donovan, Greta Gaard, Lori Gruen, Marla Rose, Laura Wright, Kim Socha, Breeze Harper, Jasmin Singer or Mariann Sullivan for example Why not Carol J Adams I looked up from the article A lot of my own animal rights and plant based diet role models and heroes are men Wait, all men And I hadn t heard of most of these women Uh oh.There are some thoughtful ideas about What s Wrong with Only White Men Judging a Contest Defending Meat Eating But the source of my uh oh was discomfiting de ja vu when I m not reading the women I m missing out.I bought the 20th Anniversary Edition of The Sexual Politics of Meat A Feminist Vegetarian Critical Theory and started reading There are three prefaces to the original book 1990 , to the 10th anniversary edition, and to the 20th edition and a foreword before the actual book begins.The book describes the intersection between feminism, pacifism and vegetarianism conversely male dominance, war, and meat eating.The early chapters such as, The Rape of Animals, the Butchering of Women, link the consumption of animals and women They are painful reading Adams draws attention to gut churning abuses that mirror modern news headlines i.e Georgia Republican Compares Women to Cows, Pigs, And Chickens His thinking Pigs must carry dead fetuses to term and so must women Sad, but that s life Abortion is unethical.It s reading a book about an atrocity during the atrocity reading about the dystopia you inhabit.When I read news like this I think, We shouldn t treat animals like that either and If we raised the bar for how we treat animals, we d treat ourselves better This idea of including animals within the moral circle of consideration is part of a vegetarian body of thought and literature Vegetarians have been expressing this idea before the word vegetarian was coined in 1847 They were called Pythagoreans before The followers of Pythagoras had religious and ethical beliefs including metempsychosis, the transmigration of souls into the bodies of other animals, which excluded the eating of animals.Adams dives into this discussion in the middle of the book and the chapter The Word Made Flesh where she talks about how, Meat eating is a story applied to animals, it gives meaning to animals existence and the alternate vegetarian narrative Instead of a hero s journey, she describes a vegetarian quest wherein dietary choices conflict with the dominant culture.By the final chapters, I was wildly adding to my to read list In the last chapter, Feminist Vegetarian Critical Theory, Adams lists numerous works of fiction with feminist vegetarian themes.The book ends on a utopian note, Feminist vegetarian activity declares that an alternative worldview exists, one which celebrates life rather than consuming death one which does not rely on resurrected animals but empowered people and with a call for the creation of vegetarian rituals that celebrate the grace of eating plants and help counter patriarchal consumption.Of note, some feminist science fiction and utopian connections the chapter Frankenstein s Vegetarian Monster explores the Creature s vegetarianism and notes other works by Romantic vegetarians including Percy Shelley s Queen Mab arguably the first feminist, vegetarian, pacifist Utopia, Adams says Fact the average American eats 43 pigs, three lambs, 11 cows, four calves, 2,555 chickens and turkeys and 861 fishes in a lifetimePairs well with Upton Sinclair sThe Jungle Percy Shelley s Queen Mab Mary Shelley s Frankenstein Eat Rice Have Faith in Women, Fran WinartQuotes It s a difficult task, o citizens, to make speeches to the belly which has no ears Cato The men were better hunters than the women, but only because the women had found that they could live quite well on foods other than meats Alice Walker, The Temple of My Familiar The slaughterhouse carries out its business in secret and decides what you will see, hides from you what it chooses Richard Selzer If the words which tell the truth about meat as food are unfit for our ears, the meat itself is not fit for our mouths Emarel Freshel As long as man kills the lower races for food or sport, he will be ready to kill his own race for enmity It is not this bloodshed or that bloodshed, that must cease, but all needless bloodshed all wanton infliction of pain or death upon our fellow beings Henry Salt May the fairies be vegetarian Judy Grahn, The Queen of Swords First Published In , The Sexual Politics Of Meat Is A Landmark Text In The Ongoing Debates About Animal Rights In The Two Decades Since, The Book Has Inspired Controversy And Heated Debate Praise For The Sexual Politics Of Meat How could I resist a title like this This is supposed to be a classic, whatever that means And I really came at this book wanting to like it, being a vegetarian feminist that s long wished for ANY critical theory that I don t consider to be a massive inward looking circle jerk But unfortunately it is quite bonkers There are some basic points I was on board with There are some interesting ways that women and meat are connected by da patriarchy meat eating is associated with strength and v How could I resist a title like this This is supposed to be a classic, whatever that means And I really came at this book wanting to like it, being a vegetarian feminist that s long wished for ANY critical theory that I don t consider to be a massive inward looking circle jerk But unfortunately it is quite bonkers There are some basic points I was on board with There are some interesting ways that women and meat are connected by da patriarchy meat eating is associated with strength and virility and was reserved for men in many cultures through history or if food was scarce Sexism and eating meat both involve the reduction of women animals to body parts for consumption, and as a result necessitate a certain denial of the existence of women animals as conscious beings Adams calls this phenomenon the absent referent which is probably the best concept in here Thus there s some very early 90s feminist linguistics examining phrases like leg man breast man and associating this with the names we have for meat and the fact they re usually different from what we call the animals themselves This is all thought provoking but she s stretching these associations to the point of borderline insanity by arguing that women and animals are in the same boat with regards to patriarchal oppression This is as insulting to farm animals as it is to women I mean, I may have been groped in a club but I ve never had to live in a cage so small I can t even turn around in it have I Men let us live in their own houses with them Like pet dogs Lucky us Thank god I m not a lit theory student anyHow is this sort of wooly thinking supposed to solve actual problems There is nothing here that will help us achieve global access to education for women Or close the pay gap Or achieve higher standards of welfare for animals on farms while still supporting farmers Or solve the conundrum that, in fact, the best way to protect a rare breed is to vote with your feet and eat it Or to even consider that, due to industrial farming, it s impossible to even eat vegetables without decimating the lives and natural habitat of all sorts of animals I could go on No, the only thing books like this are good for is to make the already converted feel insufferably pleased with themselves It utterly fails to be persuasive.This is the sort of raving pseudo intellectualism that gives us feminist vegetarians a bad name It s hard not to feel ambivalent strongly ambivalent about this book.Unless you re a student, or teacher, of feminist literature, it is somewhat of a slog to get through this book The Sexual Politics of Meat is mainly an analysis of feminist literature and most of the works to which Adams refers will seem obscure to the average reader.On the other hand, this book is considered a classic in the veg n genre and for good reason Adams artfully conveys a number of important ideas, chief among It s hard not to feel ambivalent strongly ambivalent about this book.Unless you re a student, or teacher, of feminist literature, it is somewhat of a slog to get through this book The Sexual Politics of Meat is mainly an analysis of feminist literature and most of the works to which Adams refers will seem obscure to the average reader.On the other hand, this book is considered a classic in the veg n genre and for good reason Adams artfully conveys a number of important ideas, chief among them that meat eating is strongly interrelated to other forms of oppression.As she puts it, Meat eating is to animals what white racism is to people of color, anti Semitism is to Jewish people, homophobia is to gay men and lesbians, and woman hating is to women All are oppressed by a culture that does not want to assimilate them fully on their grounds and with rights Amen to that.As a Jew, it is upsetting to me that most of my co religionists do not see the obvious parallels between the oppression and exploitation of animals, which is inherent in meat eating, and the oppression and exploitation of Jews throughout almost all of our history.And although I m a male, I m disappointed that the feminist movement largely ignores the exploitation of female organs in the dairy and egg industries Adams gives voice to these concerns, particularly the latter one Look, this book was OK The things that make me not consider it to be a better work, was the cissexism and transphobia throughout the piece It turns out Adams mentor was Mary Daly, notorious for not just her radical feminism, but her extreme transphobia.The most blatant and simple demonstration of Adams prejudice was her treatment of Doctor James Barry When Dr Barry died, it was discovered that he was apparently born female Once she reveals this of Barry, Adams proceeds to repeatedly ref Look, this book was OK The things that make me not consider it to be a better work, was the cissexism and transphobia throughout the piece It turns out Adams mentor was Mary Daly, notorious for not just her radical feminism, but her extreme transphobia.The most blatant and simple demonstration of Adams prejudice was her treatment of Doctor James Barry When Dr Barry died, it was discovered that he was apparently born female Once she reveals this of Barry, Adams proceeds to repeatedly refer to him as her , just so she can further her arguments about women and an alleged natural preference for vegetarianism.The threads of her bigotry wove through the entire text, popping up now and again to be a bitobvious such as with Barry , and distracted from her overall point.I cannot recommend this as a good feminist text This book opened my eyes to a fundamental concept that I feel is lacking in most of discussions of most of the subjects we discuss, societally speaking the absent referent Sure, this book draws parallels between culture s attitude and treatment of animals and its treatment and attitude toward women, but it goes further with regard to the former It posits that the reason it s so easy for us to abuse, misuse, mistreat, and whatever animals the way we do, is that, linguistically, we strip our This book opened my eyes to a fundamental concept that I feel is lacking in most of discussions of most of the subjects we discuss, societally speaking the absent referent Sure, this book draws parallels between culture s attitude and treatment of animals and its treatment and attitude toward women, but it goes further with regard to the former It posits that the reason it s so easy for us to abuse, misuse, mistreat, and whatever animals the way we do, is that, linguistically, we strip our conversations of any actual events that directly reference the animal Like, if we had to talk about what happens to food animals in realistic, non euphemistic or non indirect ways, we would, perhaps, be less inclined to 1 eat them or 2 treat them the terrible ways Regardless of what you think of her central thesis which I find compelling , this book, and the idea of the absent referent, really opened my eyes to not only the kinds of conversations we have as a society, but the way we have them and what we talk about or don t talk about when we re in them THIS IS A LONG REVIEW So you know where I m coming from, I m first going to explain what made me decide to be vegan If you don t care, the book review will commence after some asterisks But not these ones One warm autumn night in Los Angeles, I had a dream I was on a lunch date with my mom and an old friend at a nice Chinese restaurant I ve never been to before The walls and d cor were dark, red, paper lanterns and dragons on the walls It was busy, and we could barely hear the news THIS IS A LONG REVIEW So you know where I m coming from, I m first going to explain what made me decide to be vegan If you don t care, the book review will commence after some asterisks But not these ones One warm autumn night in Los Angeles, I had a dream I was on a lunch date with my mom and an old friend at a nice Chinese restaurant I ve never been to before The walls and d cor were dark, red, paper lanterns and dragons on the walls It was busy, and we could barely hear the newscast on the television in the corner, but we weren t really paying attention anyway After lunch, we were going to go shopping for a bit As we paid the bill, the news cut to an unexpected press conference at the White House The restaurant quieted, wanting to hear The President stepped out and greeted the viewers He explained that for the past two days, he had been meeting with other world leaders, discussing an unexpected event an event that the world needed to know about But they wanted as much information as possible first, so everyone would be well informed and not start a mass panic He took a deep breath and said that an extraterrestrial craft had landed in Russia, with extraterrestrial beings aboard, alive, and able to communicate with humans They had actually come in peace, wanting to learn about their space companions on Earth, wanting to help improve our lives They had no political agenda One of their attributes was being able to change their appearance, and so, to help humanity deal with their presence, they decided to appear as human He introduced a woman with black hair, in a white skirt suit and a bright smile One of the aliens Other aliens were with other world leaders, being introduced to other countries at their simultaneous press conferences Our alien looked and sounded human, and she calmed our fears The interview went on for hours she was very patient about our questions Needless to say, I did not go shopping after lunch For the next few months, human life improved More ships arrived The aliens taught us technological and medical advances that were humanity to continue for millennia I can t say we would have figured out on our own Life was safe and exciting There were some problems, though Sometimes people went missing Rumors started that the aliens were taking people for their own experiments on their ships, that they often changed their human appearances, that they were lulling us into submission Despite these rumors, nobody could deny the gifts they had brought us Some humans even said that a few missing people here and there was a small price to pay for the advancement of our species A year after the aliens arrived on Earth, I tripped on a street curb and tore up my knee and forearm While I m usually pretty careful about where I walk, I was distracted by some new alien human collaboration on a gorgeous building, and of course, nobody, alien or human, could stop pure accidents My injuries looked pretty bad, but I could walk, so I walked to the hospital just down the street No one was waiting in the reception area, and the nurse at the desk greeted me as soon as I walked in Our voices echoed She took me to an actual room just down the hall and asked me to wait while she got a doctor A few minutes went by Nobody came to my room, nobody walked by the door there were no sounds at all besides the white noise of the air conditioning I was already wearing a dressing gown, but the curious silence unnerved me I limped to the door, holding my elbow, and looked down the hallway Nobody I started walking down the hall, away from the reception area Half the ceiling lights were off, and every room was dark, the doors closed I found a stairwell and went downstairs I thought there might be answers in the morgue, which is usually in basements of hospitals, according to movies The hallway at the bottom of the stairs was well lit I didn t see anyone, but I could hear a woman yelling, and walked toward the sound It must have been the wrong part of the hospital for the morgue there were onlyrooms like the ones upstairs, still closed and dark, though the hallway was bright Her yelling became screaming, as I approached an open door, and several voices talked quietly I peeked around the doorway and saw a young woman in labor An older male doctor and two younger female nurses were standing around her, looking at a clipboard It s time, the doctor said My baby, said the woman in labor And all three of them fell upon her, tearing her belly apart with their teeth, their jaws changing shape as they ripped her flesh, exposing and eating the child, too The woman screamed, then fell silent, limp My heel bumped a cart behind me, and the doctor s head snapped up, his black eyes boring into me He was beside me before I could move, grasping my arm with talons, pulling me close to his face Blood dripped from his chin He exhaled, and bits of flesh stuck between his teeth shivered Why I whispered He laughed, spraying me with blood Because you humans taste so damn good, he said Do you need to Obviously not We ve survived this long without you Like I said, you re just delicious Pregnant women are our favorite Monster You first He opened his mouth, and the darkness blinded me I woke up in a cold sweat, panting, fumbling for the bedside lamp And even though I was drunk with sleep grogginess, my first thought was, I need to be vegan Somehow I knew that was the moral of the dream, and the terror I felt was so vivid, I vowed that I would never put another living being in that situation, either by my own hand or through my inaction I haven t eaten animals since Until I read The Sexual Politics of Meat, I had never connected the outcome of the dream needing to save animals from slaughter to the actual imagery of a pregnant woman being devoured Now, I like to think that having a degree in gender studies prompted my subconscious to make the connection between the two Suddenly, things makesense I m just upset with myself that my conscious mind couldn t figure it out on its own If you ve studied gender and or race issues or have some familiarity with critical theories and how they re presented, you should have no problem following the logic here If you re a feminist equalist and or vegan without much experience with critical papers, it may seem dense and repetitive I ve read other reviews criticizing Adams s repetition In critical theory, you have to not only provide evidence supporting your hypothesis, but also connect the conclusions in chapter 3 or 5 or 10 with what you said in previous chapters That way, everything ties together, and the book is cohesive If she had been re hashing previous ideas using the same references, that would be repetitive Fortunately, each chapter s theories are used as either segue or support of subsequent theories, and the references are fresh each time It s dangerous to assume that her conclusion is that all men subscribe to an animal and woman oppressed society, but it s just as dangerous to assume that she s full of crap I just read on the BBC that studies show 30% of women worldwide have suffered from physical and or sexual abuse THIRTY PERCENT If you know two other ladies, the odds are that one of you has been victimized But despite the overwhelming evidence presented in this book, Adams doesn t hate men In fact, she calls out feminism as a word that ultimately undermines its own validity it s a movement promoting equality between the sexes, yet it s named after only one of them Another dangerous response that I ve seen is ladies saying, If that s oppression, it s all right with me In that case, I like being oppressed Yeah Then you don t know what oppression is Adams also addresses this point in the book, when a wife asks defensively, Do I look oppressed It s a defense response, made by people who don t want to look at the world as it is, or don t want to believe it, despite overwhelming evidence, facts, observations But because they don t want to appear stupid, na ve, or obstinate, they try to make feminists vegetarians feel bad for NOT subscribing to the socially acceptable read oppressive mindset I can t tell you how many people have tried to start fights with me about being vegan Who does that At a restaurant, at Thanksgiving dinner, whenever, I quietly get my meal, trying to avoid attention Because I know, I KNOW, some d bag will try to start something This is something I just can t fathom I don t have any say over what other people eat, I don t try to convert anyone, but somehow, people think the lack of meat on my plate makes it acceptable for them to comment on my diet It don t And it s one thing if someone wants to engage in an enlightened conversation based in fact, but that is never the case Without provocation, they want to make me feel bad or inadequate, over sensitive, bleeding heart, na ve, less than, etc etc Whenever someone sees the lack of meat, they immediately become nutrition experts based on what they ve seen on McDonald s commercials When I told my husband how much it bothered me, he was able to shed some light on the problem Even though he knows that I make food decisions for myself, and only myself, and that I m an adult who is able to do that, and that I don t make those decisions to make other people feel bad obviously, I m just trying to eat my lunch or whatever , other people see what I m eating and feel bad about themselves They look at my plate and realize that I m actually doing something in practice that they feel guilty about NOT being able to do And instead of acting like a mature adult and blaming themselves for not being able to commit to something that would rid them of that guilt, they blame me for putting them in a situation where they have to think about how they don t like themselves Is that my fault Nope Is it fair Absolutely not It s unfortunate that meat eaters feel threatened by my vegan diet, but my relationship with food is not their business And after reading this book, I feel empowered again I feel like I ve been given the tools I need to navigate the harsh world of being judged by people for eating decently , as Shaw says Even before finishing the book, I was seeing examples of sexualized animals and animalized women everywhere television shows, commercials, billboards, even at work The newest movement is to stop bullying, but this has to extend to women of all ages not just school aged boys , and animals Need some facts and tools to help you act Read this book Recently my adult English class were studying the topic of nature which had a section on animals One of the opinions on the page was something along the lines of the world would be a healthier and happier place if everyone went vegetarian and it would be good for the environment too After giving time for students to discuss this and other ideas, I asked if they agreed with it and was answered by a chorus of heartfelt no s Why not, I wanted to hear, and the students vehemently insisted Recently my adult English class were studying the topic of nature which had a section on animals One of the opinions on the page was something along the lines of the world would be a healthier and happier place if everyone went vegetarian and it would be good for the environment too After giving time for students to discuss this and other ideas, I asked if they agreed with it and was answered by a chorus of heartfelt no s Why not, I wanted to hear, and the students vehemently insisted that eating meat was essential to survival and health You have to eat meat they said, using the strongest form for expressing obligation available to them Since I ve mentioned that I m a vegan before, my students were arguing against the evidence standing in front of them, and perhaps I should have demanded an explanation as to how I had somehow survived for the past 16 years during which I haven t eaten meat, but I focussed on dismissing The Protein Myth, which has folks believing that essential amino acids are missing from vegetable foods, or that the amino acids in such foods are not the same as the ones we need to make proteins in our bodies I wanted to squash the bad science quickly and move the class on to ethical arguments I was unprepared for this wall of resistance and strength of conviction in the necessity of meat.I don t know why I was so surprised, since I had been reading Carol Adams book The Sexual Politics of Meat , which addresses the mysterious difficulties of vegetarians to be heard over the dominance of the texts of meat Since these are written into white culture we are heard as aggressive in our very refusal to partake Plutarch is quoted suggesting vegetarians flip the question everyone asks us and invite the interlocutor to explain why they feel it s alright to eat the dead flesh of animals, but this level of provocation usually backfires One of the uses of spurious scientific arguments against vegetarianism is obviously to deflect the possibility of an ethical discussion likewise the hypotheticals wise guys and gals love to bombard us with relating to desert islands and other unlikely situations What would you do if I put a gun to a cow s head and threatened to pull the trigger if you refused to eat a burger wondered a classmate of mine recently, surely begging the question but why would you do that Anyway, while the terminology seemed a bit out of date to me, much of the analysis was valuable The idea of meat as a macho food is overt, but Adams seeks to illuminate how deep the parallels run between the status and optics of women and of animals in white Euro USian culture and society I was actually most moved by the opening section in which she points out that women everywhere go without food, especially meat, to ensure that men eat well and eat meat The discussion of rape though, made neither logical nor intuitive sense to me, and I lost the thread of the argument at times.A key topic that does resonate for me is the development of meat consumption Adams identifies four historical stages, the first being vegetarianism, followed by hunting, followed by subsistence farming, followed by industrialised agri business The Euro USian world is obviously in the fourth stage , which is mostly pretty horrific Adams considers meat eating on the scale of this cultural group to be enmeshed with white supremacy and to some extent imposed with colonisation around the world Listening to Radio 4 s Farming Today I regularly hear reports on British farmers seeking expanding markets in BRIC countries where animalised and feminised protein meat, dairy products and eggs in Adams terminology are being consumed in increasing quantities The analysis on the radio never gets beyond they want it because they can afford it now , continually reinforcing the food hierarchy with meat at the top Little attention is paid to the health or environmental implications, or the farmers intention to create demand Compassion for livestock is obviously unmentionable.While I appreciate Adams reflections on meat eating as white supremacy, and agree with her critique of Pat Parker s poem To my Vegetarian Friend , I feel the aspect of intersections between culture and racism and meat industries is underdeveloped Reading Toni Morrison s Beloved, one of many books that confronts me with the fact that Black slaves in the US were treated far worse even than animals raised for food who, as Adams points out, receive the trappings of care from humans, I am reminded that white veg ans like myself are regularly guilty of reinflicting, reinscribing or callously ignoring white supremacy and other aspects of kyriarchy This week I read about vegans of colour protesting the antics of Thug Kitchen The Sistah Vegan Project and other thoughtful, intersectional work should be required reading for vegan activists Still, Adams started the ball rolling taking veggies to task for misogyny, not that it s over Tweeting as my local Green Party branch on the topic of raising the number of women in parliament, I received a response from a white man why not focus on helping animals instead govegan presumably, only male animals Adams makes an intriguing connection between the fragmentation of animal bodies and of texts, specifically, the silencing of women s texts and especially as bearers of the vegetarian word It is important that Frankenstein, much analysed and admired, has been ignored as a vegetarian text, and also that so many attempts have been made to attribute it to Shelley s husband, since it s inconceivable that a woman can have written something so brilliant I really enjoyed the literature analysis, and I will add veg anism to the lenses I try to look through in my reading, as it seems to be all too rarely applied.One of the questions addressed by Adams analysis is that of why women, and specifically some feminists, have been drawn to vegetarianism Aside from the clear association of meat and masculinity, to what extent have women embraced plant based diets as a form of protest against patriarchal violence Because feminism and vegetarianism both tend to be ridiculed and excluded from mainstream discourse, there is a need for loving excavation of vegetarian reflections in woman oriented texts, such as the work of Alice Walker.She mentions an Victorian article about teenage girls who refuse to eat meat, which treats the behaviour as an eating disorder but, happily, recommends kindness and healthy alternatives, not coercion This apparently common experience of the body rejecting meat, of meat becoming ineffably wrong was my own at the age of fourteen Disgust is a strange emotion, and I still cannot say whether mine has its roots in my conscience I can only say that as I have removed animal products from my diet, I have ceased to see them as food, and increasingly I can t imagine how I ever ate them I was led to vegetarianism by disgust, and ethical conviction followed perhaps then, I act, and afterwards find my action good Going vegan though, I was led by concern for hungry people and warming planet, and compassion for other animals, and disgust came after It is not possible for me to separate them when asked why I am vegan, I say all the reasons , so I note that this journey out of eating animals is very personal and full of obstacles I have to thank countless people for clearing my way, including Adams, but I also have to acknowledge many privileges that have enabled me, such as money, time, whiteness, education, and living in a place with an active and creative vegan community where veganism has some recognition.I am publishing this review in celebration of the start of World Vegan Month and the 70th birthday of the Vegan Society I invite all my readers to get involved in some delicious way you definitely don t have to be vegan to 3 vegan ice cream, for example let me preface this review by saying that carol adams is a true pioneer in the field of eco vegetarian feminist critical theory she sheds light on how systems of oppression intersect with one another and how capitalism, patriarchy, racism and classism converge and are expressed in the oppression and exploitation of animals i think this is a seminal work in the field and warrants thoughtful reading it provides an alternative critique of capitalist and patriarchal systems of oppression and is a let me preface this review by saying that carol adams is a true pioneer in the field of eco vegetarian feminist critical theory she sheds light on how systems of oppression intersect with one another and how capitalism, patriarchy, racism and classism converge and are expressed in the oppression and exploitation of animals i think this is a seminal work in the field and warrants thoughtful reading it provides an alternative critique of capitalist and patriarchal systems of oppression and is a good starting point for feminists interested in furthering this area.that being said, i felt that this work lacked a basis in existing theory and research this weakened some of adams claims and arguments it would have been helpful for adams to painstakingly trace the lineage of her arguements for the reader, especially for those who do not have a background in feminist critical theory or animal liberation without this, she seemed to leave gaps in many of her claims and conclusions which could lead the reader to question the validity of her arguments i would recommend this book to anyone who is involved in animal liberation or ecofeminism it is controversial and stimulating

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